Contents

 

 

 

 

 

Preface

1

List of Abbreviations

3

Chapter 1:

 

 

Introduction: Objectives, Methodology and Literature

4

Chapter 2:

 

 

Theoretical Frameworks

12

Chapter 3:

 

 

British Aid Policy Under the 1974-79 Labour Government

35

Chapter 4:

 

 

The Overseas Aid Policy of the Conservative Government (1979-90)

58

Chapter 5:

 

 

A Quantitative Comparison of Labour and Conservative Aid Programmes   (1974-90)

89

Chapter 6:

 

 

British Aid and the Environment

138

Chapter 7:

 

 

British Aid and Gender

166

Chapter 8:

 

 

Conclusion and Alternative Proposals for UK Aid

188

Bibliography on Aid

212

Appendix 1

234

Appendix 2

269

Appendix 3

277

Appendix 4

283

Appendix 5

285

Appendix 6

286

Appendix 7

287







List of Figures

 

Figure 1:  Public Expenditure on Aid, Aid Programme, Official Development Assistance, 1975-90. Current and 1985 Constant Prices.

90

Figure 2:  Gross Public Expenditure on Overseas Aid as a Percentage of Total Public Expenditure.

91

Figure 3(a):  Breakdown of Total Net Flows from the UK to Developing Countries, 1975-90 (£million, Constant 1980 Prices).

92

Figure 3(b):  UK Total Net Flows to Developing Countries as a Percentage of UK GNP.

93

Figure 4(a):  Composition of Net Private Flows, UK to Developing Countries, 1975-90 (£million, Constant 1985 Prices).

94

Figure 4(b):  Composition of Long-Term UK Investments in Developing Countries, 1975-90 (Constant 1980 Prices).

95

Chart A:  Percentage GNP Allocated as Aid (Disbursements), 1960-1985

96

Figure 5:  Bilateral/Multilateral Aid as a Percentage of Gross Total UK Expenditure on Aid, 1975-90.

97

Figure 5(a):  Breakdown of Gross Bilateral Aid, 1975-90 (£million, Constant 1985 Prices).

98

Figure 5(b):  Breakdown of Gross Bilateral Aid 1975-90 (£million, Constant 1985 Prices).

99

Figure 6:  Grants/Loans Composition of UK Public Expenditure on Aid, 1975-90 (Percentage)

101

Figure 7:  UK Tied Aid as a Percentage of Total Gross Aid, 1978-90.

102

Figure 8:  Local Costs as a Percentage of Gross UK Bilateral Aid, 1976-90.

103

Figure 9:  Distribution of UK Aid Commitments to Poorest Countries, 1974-81 (Percentage).

104

Figure 10:  Distribution of Gross Bilateral Per Capita UK Aid Allocable by Country by Income Group, 1979-90 (£, Constant 1985 Prices)

105

Figure 11(a):  UK Poverty-Focussed Projects by Value (Constant 1980 Prices).

106

Figure 11(b):  Poverty-Focussed Projects by Value: Percentage of Total UK Capital Aid Committed on Poverty-Focussed Projects, 1976-81.

107

Figure 12(a):  UK Project Aid Expenditure by Economic Sector, Projects Allocable by Economic Sector, 1975-90 (£million, Constant 1980 Prices).

108

Figure 12(b):  Renewable Natural Resources and Social and Community Services as Percentage of Total Project Aid Allocable by Economic Sector,  1975-90.

110

Figure 13:  UK Direct and Indirect Benefit Agriculturally-Related Project Aid to Sub-Saharan Africa, 1979-84 (£million, Constant 1980 Prices).

111

Figure 14(a):  Selected Sectoral Shares of UK Agriculturally-Related Project Aid to Sub-Saharan Africa, 1979-84 (Percentages).

111

Figure 14(b):  Proportion of UK Agriculturally-Related Aid Allocable by Sector to Sub-Saharan Africa Devoted to Rural Roads Infrastructure and Selected Cash Crops, 1979-84 (Percentage).

112

Figure 15(a):  Comparison of Direct and Indirect Benefit Aid within Agriculturally-Related Sectors of UK Project Aid Allocable by Sector to all Developing Countries, 1980-88 (£million, Constant 1985 Prices).

114

Figure 15(b):  UK Agriculturally-Related Aid Expenditure as a Percentage of Total Project Aid Allocable by Sector, 1980-88.

115

Figure 16(i):  Comparison of Share of Selected Cash Crops and Cereals/Livestock in Agriculture and Livestock Sector of UK Project Aid Expenditure (Percentages).

115

Figure 16(ii)(a):  Comparison of Share of Cash Crops and Cereals/Livestock in Agriculture and Livestock Sector of UK Technical Cooperation Expenditure to all Developing Countries, 1988-91 (Percentages).

116

Figure 16(ii)(b): Comparison of Share of Cash Crops and Cereals/Livestock in Agriculture and Livestock Sector of UK Programme Aid Expenditure to all Developing Countries, 1988-91 (Percentages).

116

Figure 16(ii)(c): Comparison of Share of Cash Crops and Cereals/Livestock in Agriculture and Livestock Sector of UK Project Aid, Technical Cooperation and Programme Aid Expenditure to all Developing Countries, 1988-91 (Percentage).

117

Figure 17:  Share of Rubber, Paper and Selected Cash Crops in Agriculture and Livestock and Agricultural Processing Sub-Sectors of UK Project Aid to all Developing Countries, 1980-88 (Percentage).

117

Figure 18:  Share of Gross Expenditure on Roads, Rubber, Paper and Selected Cash Crops in UK Agriculturally-Related Project Aid Expenditure (Percentage).

118

Figure 19(a):  UK Agriculturally-Related Project Aid, Minus Roads and Selected Cash Crops, as a Percentage of Total Project Aid Allocable by Sector. Expenditure 1980-88.

119

Figure 19(b):  Comparison of Expenditure on Cereals, Agricultural Development and Farmer Services with Expenditure on Roads, Rubber, Paper and Cash Crops in UK Agriculturally-Related Project Aid to all Developing Countries, 1980-88 (£million, Constant 1985 Prices).

120

Figure 20(a):  Share of Primary Education of Total Education Sector of UK Project Aid Expenditure Allocable by Sector, 1980-88 (Percentage).

121

Figure 20(b):  Share of Primary Health of Total Health Sector of UK Project Aid Expenditure Allocable by Sector, 1980-87 (Percentage).

122

Figure 21:  Share of Family Planning of Primary Health Sector of UK Project Aid Expenditure Allocable by Sector, 1980-87 (Percentage).

122

Figure 22:  Share of Primary Education, Primary Health, Rural Water Supply, Sanitation and Housing (combined) in Total UK Project Aid Allocable by Sector, 1980-87 (Percentage).

123

Figure 23:  Britain's Contribution to IDA Replenishments.

124

Figure 24:  Distribution of Bilateral and EEC Multilateral Official Development Aid of the Nine EEC Member Countries by Continent, 1972-74 (Percentage).

124

Figure 25:  EDF Funding Since 1975 (Current ECU Millions).

125

Figure 26:  UK Gross Contribution to the EDF and EEC Food Aid, 1975-87 (£million, Constant 1980 Prices).

125

Figure 27:  Distribution of UK Gross Bilateral Aid by Commonwealth Membership, 1978-87 (£ Per Capita).

126

Figure 28:  Elements of Total UK Bilateral Project Aid, Total UK Bilateral Financial Aid and Total Bilateral Aid Accounted for by the Aid Trade Provision, 1979-80 (Percentages).

128

Figure 29:  Shares of Non-ATP Bilateral Aid of Allocable Total By Continent, 1977-84 (Percentages).

129

Figure 30:  Share of UK ATP Bilateral Aid Allocable Total By Continent, 1977-84 (Percentages).

129

Figure 31:  UK non-ATP Bilateral Aid to Commonwealth, 1978-84 (Percentages).

130

Figure 32:  UK ATP Expenditure to Commonwealth, 1978-84 (Percentages).

130

Figure 33:  UK Non-ATP Bilateral Aid, Distribution by Income Groups, 1978-84 (Percentages).

131

Figure 34:  UK ATP Bilateral Aid, Distribution by Income Groups, 1978-84 (Percentages).

131

Figure 35:  UK Non-ATP Commitments, Grants/Loans Breakdown as a Percentage of Total Bilateral Aid.

132

Figure 36:  UK ATP Commitments, Grants/Loans Breakdown as a Percentage of Total Bilateral Aid.

132

Figure 37:  UK ATP Commitments by Industrial Sector, 1978-85: Amount of ATP Money Awarded (£m).

133

Figure 38:  UK Firms with 3 or More ATP-Supported Sales, 1978-85: Value of ATP Support (£thousands).

133

Figure 39:  UK Firms Receiving More Than £10m ATP Support, 1978-85: Share of Total ATP Support (Percentages).

134

Figure 40:  UK Non-ATP Bilateral Aid By Sector Affected in the Recipient Country, 1978-84 (Percentages).

135

Figure 41:  UK ATP Bilateral Project Aid by Sector Affected in the Recipient Country, 1978-84 (Percentages).

136



List of Tables

 

Table 1:  Public Expenditure on Aid, Aid Programme, Official Development Assistance (1975-90). 1985 Constant Prices.

234

Table 2:  Gross Public Expenditure on Overseas Aid as a Percentage of Total Public Expenditure.

235

Table 3:  Composition of Total Net Flows from UK to Developing Countries, 1975-87. 1985 Constant Prices.

235

Table 4:  Composition of Net Private Flows. UK to Developing Countries. Constant 1985 Prices.

236

Table 5:  Bilateral/Multilateral Composition of Aid Flows.

236

Table 5(a):  Breakdown of Bilateral Aid. Constant 1985 Prices.

237

Table 5(a):  Breakdown of Bilateral Aid (Current Prices).

238

Table 6:  Grants/Loans Composition of Public Expenditure on Aid, 1975-90.

239

Table 7:  Tied/Untied Elements in Total Gross Aid, 1978-90.

240

Table 8:  Local Costs. 1985 Constant prices.

241

Table 9:  Country Distribution of UK Aid: Commitments.

242

Table 10:  Distribution of UK Gross Bilateral Aid (Allocable by Country) by Income Group, 1979-90. 1985 Constant Prices.

243

Table 11:  Poverty-Focussed Projects by Value.

244

Table 12(a):  Project Aid Expenditure by Economic Sector.

244

Table 12(b):  UK Project Aid Expenditure (continued)

246

Table 13:  Expenditure on UK Agriculturally-Related Projects in Africa South of the Sahara.  Constant 1980 Prices.

246

Table 14:  Selected UK Sub-Sectoral Expenditure Shares of Agriculturally-Related Project Aid to Sub-Saharan  Africa 1979-84. 1980 Constant Prices.

248

Table 15:  Expenditure on Agriculturally-Related Sectors of UK Project Aid to All  Developing Countries. Current Prices with 1985 Constant Prices for Sub-Totals.

249

Table 16(i):  Share of Cash Crops in Agriculture and Livestock Sector of UK Project Aid Expenditure to All Developing Countries 1980-88. Current and Constant 1985 Prices for Totals.

251

Table 16(ii):  Comparison of Share of Cash Crops in Agriculture and Livestock Sector of UK Project Aid, Technical Cooperation and Programme Aid Expenditure to All Developing Countries, 1980-88. Current and Constant 1985 Prices for Totals.

253

Table 17:  Share of Rubber, Paper and Selected Cash Crops in Agriculture and Livestock and Agricultural Processing Sub-Sectors of UK Project Aid Expenditure to All Developing Countries. 1980-88. Current and 1985 Constant Prices.

255

Table 18:  Share of Roads, Rubber, Paper and Selected Cash Crops in UK Agriculturally-Related Project Aid Expenditure. Current and 1985 Constant Prices.

256

Table 19(a):  UK Agriculturally-Related Project Aid Minus Roads and Selected Cash-Crops as a Percentage of Total Project Aid Expenditure (Current Prices).

257

Table 19(b):  Share of Expenditure on Cereals, Agricultural Development and Farmer Services in Agriculturally-Related Project Aid to All Developing Counries. Current Figures with 1985 Constant Figures for Sub-Totals.

258

Table 20:  Shares of Primary Education, Primary Health as Percentage of Total Education and Health Sectors of Project Aid (Current Prices).

259

Table 21:  Percentage Family Planning of Primary Health Project Aid. Current Prices.

260

Table 22:  Selected Human Development-Related Sub-Sectors of Social and Community Services Sector as Percentage of Total Project Aid Allocable by Sector.

260

Table 23:  Britain's Contribution to IDA Replenishments.

260

Table 24:  Distribution of the Bilateral and EEC Multilateral Official Development Aid of the Nine by Continent.

261

Table 25:  EDF Funding by Major Financial Category since 1975 (in Current Ecu millions).

261

Table 26:  Britain's Gross Contribution to the EDF and Food Aid 1975-87. (£m in 1985 constant prices; Ecus current prices)

262

Table 27:  Distribution of Gross Bilateral Aid Allocated by Commonwealth Membership. 1978-90. Constant 1985 Prices.

262

Table 28:  Elements of Total Bilateral Project Aid, Total Bilateral Financial Aid and Total Bilateral Aid Accounted for by the Aid for Trade Provision (ATP) 1978-87. 1985 constant prices.

263

Table 29:  UK non-ATP Bilateral Aid, Shares of Allocable Total by Continent (percentages).

264

Table 30:  ATP Expenditure, Share of Allocable Total by Continent (percentages).

264

Table 31:  UK non-ATP Bilateral Aid, Commonwealth and non-Commonwealth, 1978-84. £m in current prices.

265

Table 32:  UK ATP Expenditure, Commonwealth and non-Commonwealth 1978-84.

265

Table 33:  UK non-ATP Bilateral Aid, Distribution by Income Groups, 1978-84

265

Table 34:  ATP Expenditure, Distribution by Income Group (percentages).

265

Table 35:  UK non-ATP Aid Commitments, Grants/Loans Breakdown 1978-84.

266

Table 36:  ATP Aid Commitments, Grants/Loans Breakdown 1978-85.

266

Table 37:  ATP Commitments by UK Industrial Sector 1978-85.

266

Table 38:  Firms with 3 or More ATP-Supported Sales 1978-85.

267

Table 39:  Firms Receiving More than £10m ATP Support 1978-85.

267

Table 40:  UK Non-ATP Bilateral Project Aid, by Sector Affected in Recipient Country 1978-84 (Percentages).

267

Table 41:  ATP Expenditure by Sector Affected in Recipient Country (Percentages).

268